Additional Protocol to the Treaty establishing The Andean Parliament

The Andean Community Countries,

Convinced that the peoples’ participation is necessary to ensure the consolidation and future projection of the global integration of the countries of the Andean Subregion;

Conscious that it is essential to create a means of common action for affirming the principles, values and objectives that are identified with the effective exercise of democracy;

Bearing in mind that the incorporation of the national legislative bodies into the regional integration project, started with the establishment of the Latin American Parliament, calls for the existence of Community bodies to represent and interlink those national bodies; and

In conformity with the Act of Trujillo and the Protocol Amending the Andean Subregional Integration Agreement (Cartagena Agreement), signed on March 10, 1996, through which it was agreed to adjust the instruments establishing the bodies and institutions of the Andean Integration System;

AGREE, through their Plenipotentiary Representatives, to formalize the following

ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL TO THE TREATY ESTABLISHING
THE ANDEAN PARLIAMENT

Chapter I

On the creation, composition and headquarters of the Parliament, the common deliberating body

Article 1– The Andean Parliament is hereby created as the common deliberating body of the Andean Integration System, with the composition, organization, purposes and functions established by this Treaty.

Comprised of Representatives

Article 2- The Andean Parliament is the deliberating body of the Andean Integration System. Its’ nature is that of a Community body; it represents the nations of the Andean Community and shall be comprised of Representatives elected by Universal and Direct Vote in accordance with the procedure to be adopted through an Additional Protocol that shall include appropriate criteria for national representation.

Until the Additional Protocol instituting Direct Elections is signed, the Andean Parliament shall be comprised of five Representatives of each National Congress, chosen in keeping with its internal regulations and the General Regulations of the Andean Parliament.

The Andean Parliament shall have its permanent headquarters in the city of Bogotá, Colombia.

Common objectives

Article 3- The Andean Parliament and the Representatives shall act in accordance with the common objectives and interests of the Contracting Parties.

Annual meetings

Article 4- The Andean Parliament shall hold two Regular Meetings a year with no need for prior summons.

The place, date and duration of the annual meetings shall determined at the previous year’s session, using a system of rotation among the countries.

The Andean Parliament may meet on a special basis to take cognizance of urgent and specific matters when requested to do so by at least one-third of the Representatives.

Chapter II
On the organization of the Parliament

Period of representation

Article 5- Representatives shall be elected for a two-year period and may be reelected. Representatives shall continue to be members of the Andean Parliament until they have been legally replaced pursuant to article 2 of this Treaty.

Representative and alternates

Article 6- Each Representative shall have a first and second alternate, who shall replace him/her, in that order, when absent temporarily or permanently.

Alternates shall be elected on the same dates, in the same way, and for the same period as the Titular Representatives.

Officers

Article 7- The Andean Parliament shall elect, from among its Members, its President and such Vice-Presidents as its Regulations stipulate, for a two-year term of office.

Secretariat

Article 8- The Andean Parliament shall have a General Secretariat, whose composition and functions shall be defined in the Regulations.

International legal status

Article 9- The Andean Parliament shall have an international legal status and the capacity to exercise it.

Diplomatic immunity

Article 10- The Members of the Andean Parliament, as part of the Andean Integration System, shall enjoy such privileges and immunities within the territories of each Member Country as they need to fulfill their objectives. Its international Representatives and officials shall likewise enjoy the privileges and immunities they require to perform their functions in connection with this Treaty with independence. Its premises are inviolable and its property and assets shall be immune from all judicial proceeding, unless this immunity is expressly waived. Notwithstanding, such a waiver shall not apply to any judicial executory measure.

Chapter III
On the objectives and functions of the Parliament

Objectives

Article 11- The Andean Parliament has the following objectives:

  • To contribute to the promotion and orientation of the Andean Community integration process;
  • To uphold, within the Andean Subregion, the full rule of freedom, social justice and democracy in its broadest participatory exercise;

  • To ensure respect for Human Rights for all Contracting Parties, within the context of the international instruments existing in that area;

  • To promote the involvement of the nations as actors in the Andean integration process;

  • To promote the development of an Andean Community conscience and the integration of the Latin American Community;

  • To promote among the nations of the Andean Subregion an awareness and the broadest possible dissemination of the principles and provisions that guide the establishment of a new international order; and

  • To contribute to the strengthening of the democratic system, international peace and justice, and the right of nations to free self-determination.

Functions

Article 12- The functions of the Andean Parliament are:

  • To take part in promoting and orienting the Andean Subregional Integration process with a view toward consolidating Latin American integration;
  • To examine the progress of Andean Subregional Integration and the fulfillment of its objectives by requesting periodic information for that purpose from the bodies and institutions of the Andean Integration System;

  • To formulate recommendations on the Draft Annual Budgets of the bodies and institutions of the Andean Integration System that are financed through the direct contributions of the Member Countries;

  • To suggest to the bodies and institutions of the Andean Integration System, actions or decisions that have as their goal or effect, the adoption of amendments, adjustments or new general guidelines in relation to the programmed objectives and the institutional structure of the Andean Integration System;

  • To participate in law-making for the process by suggesting to the bodies of the Andean Integration System, Draft Provisions on matters of common interest, for incorporation into the legal system of the Andean Community;

  • To promote the harmonization of Member Country legislation; and

  • To foster cooperation and coordination among the Parliaments of the Member Countries, the Bodies and Institutions of the Andean Integration System, and the Parliamentary Bodies for Integration or Cooperation with Third Countries.

Recommendations

Article 13- The Andean Parliament shall go on record with its opinion through recommendations on matters covered by articles 11 and 12 of this Treaty.

Simple majority

Article 14- The Andean Parliament shall adopt its recommendations by simple majority, except in the special cases provided for in its internal regulations.

Regulations

Article 15- The Andean Parliament shall promulgate its General Regulations.

Agenda for its annual meeting

Article 16- The President of the Andean Parliament, in consultation with the other Representatives, shall draw up the provisional agenda for the Annual Meetings.

Proceedings

Article 17- The Proceedings of the Andean Parliament shall be published in the way specified by its Regulations.

Chapter IV
On the signing, accession, legal force, and denunciation

Signing without reservations

Article 18- This Treaty may not be signed with reservations, nor shall these be accepted at the time of ratification or accession. Only Member States of the Andean Integration System, or those that become such, may be parties to this Treaty.

Ratification

Article 19- This Treaty shall be subject to ratification by the Signatory States. It shall enter into force thirty (30) days after all of those States have ratified it. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited at the Andean Community General Secretariat, which shall notify the other Signatory States about their deposit.

Legal force and denunciation

Article 20- This Treaty shall remain in force for the entire period of effectiveness of the Cartagena Agreement and may not be denounced independently of that Agreement. Denunciation of the Cartagena Agreement shall bear with it the denunciation of this Treaty.

Transitional Provision

The Election of the Representatives to the Andean Parliament by Universal and Direct Vote should be held within a period of no more than five (5) years.

Replacement

This Treaty replaces the Treaty Creating the Andean Parliament signed on October 25, 1979, which shall remain in force until this instrument becomes effective.

Final Provision

The amendments approved at the VIII Andean Presidential Council held in Trujillo, Peru on March tenth (10th), nineteen ninety-six through the Protocol Amending the Andean Subregional Integration Agreement (Cartagena Agreement), have been adjusted to this Treaty.

In witness whereof, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Andean Community Member Countries sign this Treaty on behalf of their respective Governments.

Enacted in the city of Sucre, on the twenty-third of April of nineteen ninety-seven, in four, equally authentic copies.

ADDITIONAL
PROTOCOL TO THE TREATY CREATING THE ANDEAN PARLIAMENT, REGARDING THE DIRECT AND UNIVERSAL ELECTION OF ITS REPRESENTATIVES


ARTICLE 1-This Protocol establishes the procedures that will be adopted in the Andean Parliament Member Countries for the Election of their Representatives by Universal, Direct and secret vote.

The election of the Representatives to the Andean Parliament by Universal and Direct Vote should be held within a period of no more than five (5) years.

ARTICLE 2- The permanent headquarters of the Andean Parliament shall be located in Bogotá, Colombia.

ARTICLE 3- Five (5) titular Representatives to the Andean Parliament shall be elected in each Member Country. Each Representative shall have a first and second alternate, who shall replace him/her in that order, in the case of temporary or permanent absence. Alternates shall be elected on the same date, in the same way, and for the same period as Titular Representatives.

ARTICLE 4- Until a Uniform Electoral System has been established, the System for Electing the Titular Representatives to the Andean Parliament, as well as their alternates, shall be governed by the national legislation of each Member Country.

ARTICLE 5- Representatives to the Andean Parliament shall be elected in each Member Country on the date of the Legislative or other general election, including special elections, in accordance with its own national laws.

ARTICLE 6- Representatives to the Andean Parliament shall enjoy full autonomy in the exercise of their functions and are not subject to any imperative mandate. They shall vote on a personal and individual basis and shall act in accordance with Community objectives and interests. Andean Parliamentarians are not responsible to any authority or jurisdictional body whatsoever for the votes they cast or the opinions they express on matters connected with their position. Representatives to the Parliament shall all enjoy, in addition to the immunities stipulated in article 10 of the Treaty Establishing the Andean Parliament, Parliamentary immunity in the same way and to the same extent as the Legislators of their respective Member Country.

ARTICLE 7- National Legislators of Member Countries may be Representatives to the Andean Parliament at the same time, although this in no way constitutes a requirement for eligibility.

ARTICLE 8- The impediments to the exercise of the function of Representative to the Andean Parliament, in addition to those established in the national legislation of each Member Country, are the following:

  • Performing public functions in the service of a Member Country, except for legislative duties.
  • Being a Representative, official or employee of any other Andean Integration System body.

  • Being an official or employee of any Andean Community Institution or of the Specialized Bodies connected with them.

  • Furthermore, until the Uniform Electoral System enters into effect, each Member Country may enact national provisions regarding other incompatibilities.

  • Representatives who, after having assumed their mandate, demonstrate any of the incompatibilities stipulated in this article, shall cease their functions and shall be replaced by their respective alternates, so long as those incompatibilities exist.

ARTICLE 9-Until the Uniform Electoral System enters into effect, the Member Countries shall report the official results of the election of their Representatives to the Andean Parliament. The latter shall also duly receive and verify the credentials of those persons elected.

ARTICLE 10- The annual budget approved for the operation of the Andean Parliament shall be covered by resources contributed by each Member Country, in keeping with the regulatory provisions that are issued for that purpose.

Their respective Congresses shall pay the fees and other remunerations to which Andean Parliamentarians elected by the people are entitled, in proportions equal to those paid from the General Congressional Budgets to each country’s Legislators.

ARTICLE 11- This Protocol may not be signed with reservations, nor shall these be acceptable at the time of ratification or accession. Only Member States of the Andean Community, or those that become such, may be parties to this Protocol.

ARTICLE 12- In order for this Protocol to enter into force, all of the Andean Community Member Countries must first deposit their instruments of ratification.

The Protocol shall become effective on the day after the last instrument of ratification has been deposited at the Andean Community General Secretariat and shall remain in force for the entire period of effectiveness of the Cartagena Agreement and the Treaty Establishing the Andean Parliament and may not be denounced independently of those instruments.

ARTICLE 13- The Andean Parliament shall be responsible for the organic, structural and functional regulation of this Protocol.

Transitional Provision

The current system of Indirect Election under the responsibility of the respective National Legislative Bodies shall remain in effect until the Universal and Direct Elections provided for in article 1 of this instrument have been held.

In witness whereof, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Andean Community Member Countries sign this Protocol on behalf of their respective Governments.

Signed in the city of Sucre, on the twenty-third of April of nineteen ninety-seven, in four, equally authentic copies.

Tratado Constitutivo del Parlamento Andino

Los Países de la Comunidad Andina,

Convencidos de que la participación de los pueblos es necesaria para asegurar la consolidación y proyección futura del proceso global de integración de los países de la Subregión Andina;

Conscientes de que es indispensable crear un medio de acción común para afirmar los principios, valores y objetivos que se identifican con el ejercicio efectivo de la democracia;

Teniendo en cuenta que la incorporación de los cuerpos legislativos nacionales a la obra de la integración regional, iniciada al fundarse el Parlamento Latinoamericano, requiere de la existencia de órganos comunitarios, representativos y vinculatorios de dichos cuerpos; y

De conformidad con el Acta de Trujillo y el Protocolo Modificatorio del Acuerdo de Integración Subregional Andino (Acuerdo de Cartagena), suscrito el 10 de marzo de 1996, mediante los cuales se convino en adecuar los instrumentos constitutivos de los órganos y de las instituciones del Sistema Andino de Integración;

CONVIENEN, por medio de sus Representantes Plenipotenciarios, celebrar el siguiente Tratado Constitutivo del Parlamento Andino

Capítulo I: De la Creación, Composición y Sede del Parlamento Organo Deliberante Común

Artículo 1.-

Créase, como órgano deliberante común del Sistema Andino de Integración, el Parlamento Andino, con la composición, organización, propósitos y funciones que establece el presente Tratado.

Constitución por Representantes

Artículo 2.-

El Parlamento Andino es el órgano deliberante del Sistema Andino de Integración, su naturaleza es comunitaria, representa a los pueblos de la Comunidad Andina y estará constituido por Representantes elegidos por Sufragio Universal y Directo, según procedimiento que se adoptará mediante Protocolo Adicional que incluirá los adecuados criterios de representación nacional.

En tanto se suscriba el Protocolo Adicional que instituya la Elección Directa, el Parlamento Andino estará conformado por cinco Representantes de los Congresos Nacionales, de conformidad a sus reglamentaciones internas y al Reglamento General del Parlamento Andino.

La sede permanente del Parlamento Andino estará en la ciudad de Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia.

Objetivos comunes

Artículo 3.-

El Parlamento Andino y los Representantes actuarán en función de los objetivos e intereses comunes de las Partes Contratantes.

Sesiones Anuales

Artículo 4.-

El Parlamento Andino celebrará dos Sesiones Ordinarias anuales sin necesidad de previa convocatoria.

El lugar, la fecha de celebración y período de duración de las reuniones anuales se determinarán en la del año precedente, con un criterio de rotación de países.

El Parlamento Andino podrá reunirse en forma extraordinaria para conocer de asuntos urgentes y específicos, cuando así lo solicite por lo menos un tercio de los Representantes.

Capítulo II: De la Organización del Parlamento Período de Representación

Artículo 5.-

Los Representantes serán elegidos por un período de dos años y podrán ser reelegidos. Los Representantes continuarán siendo miembros del Parlamento Andino hasta que sean legalmente reemplazados de conformidad con el artículo 2 del presente Tratado.

Principal y Suplentes

Artículo 6.-

Cada Representante tendrá un primero y segundo suplentes que lo sustituirán en su orden, en los casos de ausencia temporal o definitiva.

Los suplentes serán elegidos en las mismas fechas y forma; y por período igual al de los Representantes Titulares.

Dignatarios

Artículo 7.-

El Parlamento Andino elegirá, de entre sus Miembros, su Presidente y los Vicepresidentes que establezca su Reglamento, quienes durarán dos años en sus funciones.

Secretaría

Artículo 8.-

El Parlamento Andino tendrá una Secretaría General. Su composición y funciones serán definidas en el Reglamento.

Personalidad Jurídica Internacional

Artículo 9.-

El Parlamento Andino tendrá personalidad jurídica internacional y capacidad de ejercicio de la misma.

Inmunidad Diplomática

Artículo 10.-

Los Miembros del Parlamento Andino como parte del Sistema Andino de Integración, gozarán en el territorio de cada uno de los Países Miembros, de los privilegios e inmunidades necesarios para la realización de sus propósitos. Sus Representantes y funcionarios internacionales gozarán, así mismo, de los privilegios e inmunidades necesarios para desempeñar con independencia sus funciones, en relación con este Tratado. Sus locales son inviolables y sus bienes y haberes gozan de inmunidad contra todo procedimiento judicial, salvo que renuncie expresamente a ésta. No obstante, tal renuncia no se aplicará a ninguna medida judicial ejecutoriada.

Capítulo III: De los Propósitos y Funciones del Parlamento

A. Propósitos

Artículo 11.-

Son propósitos del Parlamento Andino:

    • a) Coadyuvar a la promoción y orientación del proceso de integración de la Comunidad Andina;

b) Sustentar, en la Subregión Andina, el pleno imperio de la libertad, de la justicia social y de la democracia en su más amplio ejercicio participativo;

c) Velar por el respeto de los Derechos Humanos dentro del marco de los instrumentos internacionales vigentes sobre la materia para todas las Partes Contratantes;

d) Promover la participación de los pueblos como actores del proceso de integración andina;

e) Fomentar el desarrollo de una conciencia comunitaria andina; y la integración de la comunidad latinoamericana;

f) Promover en los pueblos de la Subregión Andina la toma de conciencia y la más amplia difusión de los principios y normas que orientan el establecimiento de un nuevo orden internacional; y

g) Contribuir al afianzamiento del sistema democrático, de la paz y la justicia internacionales. Y al derecho de la libre autodeterminación de los pueblos.

B. Atribuciones

Artículo 12.-

Son atribuciones del Parlamento Andino:

    • a) Participar en la promoción y la orientación del Proceso de la Integración Subregional Andina, con miras a la consolidación de la integración latinoamericana;

b) Examinar la marcha del Proceso de la Integración Subregional Andina y el cumplimiento de sus objetivos, requiriendo para ello información periódica a los órganos e instituciones del Sistema Andino de Integración;

c) Formular recomendaciones sobre los Proyectos de Presupuesto Anual de los órganos e instituciones del Sistema Andino de Integración que se constituyen con las contribuciones directas de los Países Miembros;

d) Sugerir a los órganos e instituciones del Sistema Andino de Integración las acciones o decisiones que tengan por objeto o efecto la adopción de modificaciones, ajustes o nuevos lineamientos generales con relación a los objetivos programáticos y a la estructura institucional del Sistema Andino de Integración;

e) Participar en la generación normativa del proceso mediante sugerencias a los órganos del Sistema Andino de Integración de Proyectos de Normas sobre temas de interés común, para su incorporación en el ordenamiento jurídico de la Comunidad Andina;

f) Promover la armonización de las legislaciones de los Países Miembros;

g) Promover relaciones de cooperación y coordinación con los Parlamentos de los Países Miembros, los Organos e Instituciones del Sistema Andino de Integración, así como con los Organos Parlamentarios de Integración o Cooperación con Terceros Países.

Recomendaciones

Artículo 13.-

El Parlamento Andino se pronunciará a través de recomendaciones respecto a los asuntos contenidos en los artículos 11 y 12 del presente Tratado.

Mayoría Simple

Artículo 14.-

El Parlamento Andino adoptará sus recomendaciones por mayoría simple, salvo las excepciones previstas en sus reglamentos internos.

Reglamento

Artículo 15.-

El Parlamento Andino dictará su Reglamento General.

Temario Sesión Anual

Artículo 16.-

El Presidente del Parlamento Andino preparará el temario provisional de las Sesiones Anuales, en consulta con los demás Representantes.

Actas

Artículo 17.-

Las Actas del Parlamento Andino se publicarán en la forma que determine su Reglamento.

Capítulo IV: De la Suscripción, Adhesión, Vigencia y Denuncia, Suscripción de Reservas

Artículo 18.-

Este Tratado no podrá ser suscrito con reservas, ni se admitirán éstas en el momento de su ratificación o adhesión. Sólo los Estados Miembros del Sistema Andino de Integración, o que llegaren a serlo, podrán ser partes del presente Tratado.

Ratificaciones

Artículo 19.-

El presente Tratado estará sujeto a ratificación por los Estados Signatarios. Entrará en vigor treinta (30) días después de que todos éstos lo hayan ratificado. Los instrumentos de ratificación serán depositados en la Secretaría General de la Comunidad Andina, la cual notificará dichos depósitos a los demás Estados Signatarios.

Vigencia y Denuncia

Artículo 20.-

El presente Tratado permanecerá en vigencia durante todo el tiempo que se halle en vigor el Acuerdo de Cartagena y no podrá ser denunciado en forma independiente de éste. La denuncia del Acuerdo de Cartagena comportará la del presente Tratado.

Disposición Transitoria

Las Elecciones por fragio Universal y Directo de los Representantes ante el Parlamento Andino deberán realizarse dentro de un plazo de hasta cinco (5) años.

Sustitución

El presente Tratado sustituye al Tratado Constitutivo del Parlamento Andino, suscrito el 25 de octubre de 1979, el mismo que se mantendrá en vigencia hasta la entrada en vigor del presente instrumento.

Disposición Final

Al presente Tratado se han adecuado las Modificaciones aprobadas en el VIII Consejo Presidencial Andino, realizado en la ciudad de Trujillo-Perú a los diez (10) días del mes de marzo del año de mil novecientos noventa y seis, mediante Protocolo Modificatorio del Acuerdo de Integración Subregional Andino (Acuerdo de Cartagena).

En fe de lo cual, los Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores de los Países Miembros de la Comunidad Andina, firman el presente Tratado en nombre de sus respectivos Gobiernos.

Hecho en la ciudad de Sucre, a los veintitrés días del mes de abril de mil novecientos noventa y siete, en cuatro ejemplares, igualmente auténticos.

Por el Gobierno de Bolivia

  ANTONIO ARANIBAR QUIROGA


 Por el Gobierno de Colombia

  MARIA EMMA MEJIA VELEZ

 Por el Gobierno del Ecuador

  JOSE AYALA LASSO


 Por el Gobierno del Perú

  EDUARDO FERRERO COSTA

Por el Gobierno de Venezuela

  MIGUEL ANGEL BURELLI RIVAS


 

Protocolo Adicional al Tratado Constitutivo del Parlamento Andino sobre Elecciones Directas y Universales de sus Representantes
Artículo 1.-

El presente Protocolo establece los procedimientos que se adoptarán en los Procesos Electorales que se celebren en los Países Miembros del Parlamento Andino para la Elección, mediante Sufragio Universal, Directo y secreto de sus Representantes.

Las Elecciones por Sufragio Universal y Directo de los Representantes ante el Parlamento Andino deberán realizarse dentro de un plazo hasta de cinco (5) años.

Artículo 2.-

La sede permanente del Parlamento Andino estará en la ciudad de Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia.

Artículo 3.-

En cada País Miembro se elegirán cinco (5) Representantes Titulares al Parlamento Andino. Cada Representante tendrá un primero y segundo suplentes que lo sustituirán en su orden, en los casos de ausencia temporal o definitiva. Los suplentes serán elegidos en la misma fecha, forma y por períodos iguales al de los Representantes Titulares.

Artículo 4.-

En tanto se establezca un Régimen Electoral Uniforme, el Sistema de Elección de los Representantes Titulares ante el Parlamento Andino, así como el de sus suplentes, se regirá de acuerdo a la Legislación Interna de cada País Miembro.

Artículo 5.-

Los Representantes al Parlamento Andino serán elegidos en cada País Miembro en la fecha en que se efectúen Elecciones Legislativas u otras generales, pudiendo ser comicios especiales, de conformidad con su propia Legislación.

Artículo 6.-

Los Representantes al Parlamento Andino gozarán de total autonomía en el ejercicio de sus funciones, no estando sujetos a mandato imperativo. Votarán en forma personal e individual y actuarán en función de los objetivos e intereses comunitarios. Los Parlamentarios Andinos no son responsables ante autoridad ni Organo Jurisdiccional alguno por los votos u opiniones que emitan en relación con los asuntos propios de su cargo. Además de las inmunidades contempladas en el artículo 10 del Tratado Constitutivo del Parlamento Andino, los Representantes al Parlamento gozarán de inmunidad Parlamentaria, en la misma forma y con la misma extensión que los Legisladores del País Miembro donde se encuentren.

Artículo 7.-

Los Parlamentarios Nacionales de los Países Miembros podrán ser al mismo tiempo Representantes al Parlamento Andino, sin que ello constituya, de modo alguno, requisito de elegibilidad.

Artículo 8.-

La función de Representante al Parlamento Andino, además de las incompatibilidades consagradas en el derecho interno de cada País Miembro, tendrá los siguientes impedimentos:

    • a) Ejercer funciones públicas al servicio de algún País Miembro, salvo la legislativa.

      • Ser Representante, funcionario o empleado de algún otro Organo del Sistema Andino de Integración.
      • Ser funcionario o empleado de alguna de las Instituciones Comunitarias Andinas o de los Organismos Especializados vinculados a ellas.

b) Adicionalmente, hasta que entre en vigor el Régimen Electoral Uniforme, cada País Miembro podrá dictar normas nacionales sobre otras incompatibilidades.

Los Representantes que después de haber asumido su mandato, resulten comprendidos en cualesquiera de las incompatibilidades previstas en este artículo, cesarán en sus funciones y serán reemplazados por su respectivo suplente, mientras persistan las incompatibilidades.

Artículo 9.-

Hasta que entre en vigencia el Régimen Electoral Uniforme, el Parlamento Andino será informado por los Países Miembros, sobre los resultados oficiales de las elecciones de sus Representantes, así como también recibirá y verificará en su oportunidad las credenciales de los elegidos.

Artículo 10.-

El presupuesto anual aprobado para el funcionamiento del Parlamento Andino, será cubierto por los recursos aportados por cada País Miembro, de conformidad con las disposiciones reglamentarias que se dicten al respecto.

El pago de remuneraciones y demás emolumentos que deban recibir los Parlamentarios Andinos de Elección Popular, será sufragado por sus respectivos Congresos en iguales proporciones que la de los Legisladores de cada país, con cargo al Presupuesto General de sus Congresos.

Artículo 11.-

El presente Protocolo no podrá ser suscrito con reservas, ni se admitirán éstas en el momento de su ratificación o adhesión. Sólo los Estados Miembros de la Comunidad Andina, o que llegaren a serlo, podrán ser partes del presente Protocolo.

Artículo 12.-

Para la entrada en vigor de este Protocolo se requerirá del depósito de los instrumentos de ratificación por parte de todos los Países Miembros de la Comunidad Andina.

El presente Protocolo entrará en vigor al día siguiente del depósito del último instrumento de ratificación en la Secretaría General de la Comunidad Andina y permanecerá en vigor durante todo el tiempo que esté en vigencia el Acuerdo de Cartagena y el Tratado Constitutivo del Parlamento Andino y no podrá ser denunciado en forma independiente de éstos.

Artículo 13.-

Corresponde al Parlamento Andino la reglamentación orgánica, estructural y funcional del presente Protocolo.

Disposición Transitoria

El actual Sistema de Elección Indirecta a cargo de los respectivos Organos Legislativos Nacionales, se mantendrá en vigor hasta que se vayan realizando, en cada País Miembro, las Elecciones Universales y Directas, previstas en el artículo 1 del presente instrumento.

En fe de lo cual, los Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores de los Países Miembros de la Comunidad Andina, suscriben el presente Protocolo, en nombre de sus respectivos Gobiernos.

Hecho en la ciudad de Sucre, a los veintitrés días del mes de abril de mil novecientos noventa y siete, en cuatro ejemplares originales, igualmente auténticos.

Por el Gobierno de Bolivia

ANTONIO ARANIBAR QUIROGA


 Por el Gobierno de Colombia

  MARIA EMMA MEJIA VELEZ

 Por el Gobierno del Ecuador

  JOSE AYALA LASSO


 Por el Gobierno del Perú

  EDUARDO FERRERO COSTA

Por el Gobierno de Venezuela

MIGUEL ANGEL BURELLI RIVAS

Brazil Culture

Cultural Life

The cultures of the indigenous Indians, Africans, and Portuguese have together formed the modern Brazilian way of life. The Portuguese culture is by far the dominant of these influences; from it Brazilians acquired their language, their main religion, and most of their customs. The Indian population is now statistically small, but Tupí-Guaraní, the language of many Brazilian Indians, continues to strongly influence the Brazilian Portuguese language; other Indian contributions to Brazilian culture are most apparent in the Amazon basin. African influences on the Brazilian way of life are strongest along the coast between the Northeast and Rio de Janeiro; they include traditional foods, religions, and popular music and dance, especially the samba. Commercial and cultural imports from Europe and North America have often competed with—and influenced—Brazilians’ own cultural output, and critics have argued that the nation’s cultural identity is suffering as a result. Despite numerous social and economic challenges, Brazilians continue to be exuberant and creative in their celebrations and art forms.

 

 

Cultural institutions

 

The Brazilian Academy of Letters, with its headquarters in Rio de Janeiro, is generally regarded as the most prestigious of the country’s numerous learned societies. The National Library, also in Rio, was founded in 1810 with 60,000 volumes from the Portuguese royal library; it now holds millions of books and documents. Most of Brazil’s other libraries have limited holdings. Among the major history museums are the Museum of the Republic (1960; housed in the former governmental palace) and the National Historical Museum (1922), both in Rio, the São Paulo University Museum (1895), and the Imperial Museum (1940) in Petropólis. The São Paulo Art Museum (1947) and Rio de Janeiro Museum of Modern Art (1948) are internationally renowned. Both Rio and São Paulo have major museums of anthropology and numerous theatres. A notable institution for the performing arts is the São Paulo State Symphony Orchestra (1953; revitalized 1972), housed since 1999 in the Sala São Paulo, a renovated early 20th-century railroad station. Few of the country’s major cultural institutions are based in Brasília.

 

 

The arts

Literature

Brazil has had many world-renowned literary figures whose cumulative writings are regarded by many to be richer than those of Portugal because of their variety of ethnic and regional themes. Joaquim Machado de Assis, the son of a freed slave, was a leading voice of the 19th century with his romantic novels. In the 20th century the Northeast produced a particularly wide range of superb writing, including that of Gilberto Freyre on the subject of life under slavery, Graciliano Ramos’s tragedies about the drought quadrilateral, João Guimaraês Rosa’s tales of survival and violence in the interior, and Jorge Amado’s lighthearted stories set in the cacao-growing zone of Bahia. Érico Veríssimo’s tales of southern Brazil have also been translated into many languages.

 

Visual arts

The landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx has made urban Brazilians especially aware of the splendours of their natural environment by replacing the traditional, formal European-style gardens containing imported plants with a profusion of native species in approximation to their natural settings. Some of Marx’s landscapes have been used to set off the imaginative structures of Brazil’s world-renowned architect Oscar Niemeyer. Among his works, Niemeyer designed a striking array of public buildings in Brasília, in collaboration with Lúcio Costa, the creator of the capital’s original layout. Brazil also cherishes numerous splendid structures from its colonial and imperial past, from the tiled houses and ornate churches of Salvador to the palaces and public buildings of Rio de Janeiro. Among the most revered of these are the 18th-century churches in Minas Gerais that were adorned by facades, biblical scenes, and statues carved in soapstone by Antônio Francisco Lisboa, better known as Aleijadinho (“Little Cripple”).

Western styles of painting began developing in Brazil in the 18th century. In the 19th century, particularly during the reign of Emperor Pedro II, the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro drove the development of Brazilian painting, which was largely influenced by Neoclassical and Romantic styles. The academy organized art collections, held exhibitions and competitions, and trained a number of Brazilian artists who specialized in the painting of landscapes and historical subjects. Among the most prominent 19th-century Brazilian painters were Victor Meirelles, Pedro Américo, José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior, and Rodolfo Amoedo. In the late 19th century Belmiro de Almeida painted scenes of Brazilian daily life, influencing a trend toward realism. In the 20th century the painter Cândido Portinari was a major proponent of a uniquely Brazilian style, which blended abstract European techniques with realistic portrayals of the people and landscapes of his native land; the painter Emiliano Di Cavalcanti, a contemporary of Portinari, gained equal international renown. In 1922, seeking to break with the conservative past, Di Cavalcanti helped to organize Modern Art Week in São Paulo, which promoted a Modernist spirit in Brazilian art. Later in the 20th century, celebrated photographic collections, such as the works of Sebastião Salgado, interpreted Brazil’s social and natural settings. The country’s most prestigious art exhibition is the International Biennial of São Paulo (established 1951), which regularly attracts participants from more than 50 countries.

Learn more about Plixur’s part owner Lorraine!

 

Hello guys, my name is Lorraine Nunes and I am here to talk a little bit about my journey before I became a part of Plixur! I was born on Rio De Janeiro, Brazil and grew up there until I was 11. And while Brazil is a beautiful country and the fifth largest in the world, we cannot forget about those that live at poverty line or below the poverty line. I was one of those people that came from the favela or slum in Rio. I was a happy little girl that grew up never seeing color, social status or people’s mental or physical disabilities because where I lived, I lived among all types of people and when you live in a tight knit community, these people become your family. My values stem from my upbringing.

One day by chance or blessing, my family decided to move to the United States. For a whole year all I could think about was going back , about the friends that I left behind, the live music and delicious food .I always had an ambition to be more because since I was little I loved to learn and teach, but as I finished my childhood in the United States , it grew more. Things like going to college and making more money started to matter. I learned about other cultures by growing up amongst Latinos/Hispanics .Although we do not speak the same language, I felt welcomed by the Hispanic community because I am Latina ; a label I wasn’t aware of before, but it became apparent that it mattered in the US. While you can say labels can separate people, inn my case I felt more connected and became proud of my origins.

Plixur.com allows me to help my community, the Latino/Hispanic community by allowing small Latin American businesses to have their store through our website. Most stuff are handmade and I think that is important. People want authenticity and Plixur.com can give you the most authentic Latin American products and that is the heart of Plixur.

 

 

Upload different options such as “Colors or Sizes” to your Plixur store

1- In the upper right side of the screen click on “Seller Dashboard”

 

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2 – Click on “Products”

 

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3 – Click on “ADD PRODUCTS”

 

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4 – Fill in the corresponding information

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5 – At the bottom of the screen click on “This product has multiple options”

 

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6 – Fill in the corresponding information.

 

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7 – Click on “ADD OPTION” if the product has different color.

 

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8 – If the measurements or colors affect the price of the product click on “create variation using those attributes options”

 

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9 – Then click on “Save Prodcut”

 

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THANK YOU

GRACIAS

OBRIGADO…….

 

Plixur: A world of Quality Shopping !

Plixur is an online platform gathering Quality products from talented small businesses in South America but also a part of Africa. Quality products for very reasonable prices and a good shipping and handling with FedEx discounts is any better. These products are handmade by talented people who don’t have access to the American Market. However, through Plixur, these products can travel across the world to our different clients. Prices are detailed but wholesale prices are available too for businesses who would wish to do business with Plixur. Enjoy these products and feel the taste of South America And Africa! 🙂

Mercosur: South America’s Fractious Trade Bloc

Introduction

Mercosur, the “Common Market of the South,” is an economic and political agreement among Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay (which is currently suspended), and Uruguay to promote the free movement of goods, services and people among member states. Mercosur’s primary interest has been eliminating obstacles to regional trade, such as high tariffs and income inequalities. Yet experts say Mercosur has become somewhat paralyzed in recent years, with its members divided over whether the organization should remain focused on regional trade or whether it should add political affairs to its mandate. In July 2012, Venezuela was admitted to the trade bloc as its fifth full member with complete access to the common market and voting rights, a move that some analysts say will primarily benefit Argentina and Brazil and further politicize the organization. The creation of a regional customs union in 2008, the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), also has raised questions about Mercosur’s utility. Moreover, Paraguay’s 2012 suspension from the bloc has added fresh concerns about the bloc’s future.

What is Mercosur?

The Mercosur trade bloc’s purpose, as stated in the 1991 Treaty of Asunción, is to allow for free trade between member states, with the ultimate goal of full South American economic integration. The trade bloc’s “grand aspiration is to unify the Southern Cone and then all of South America in an economic bloc,” says Katherine Hancy Wheeler, a research associate with the Council on Hemispheric Affairs. “It gives them more trading security.” Brazil is the region’s largest economy with a gross domestic product (GDP) of more than $2.2 trillion in 2012.

The population of Mercosur’s full membership totaled more than 260 million people in 2011; including Venezuela, it has a collective GDP of $2.9 trillion and is the world’s fourth-largest trading bloc after the European Union (EU), North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Whether any reduction in poverty can be linked directly to Mercosur trade policies is unclear.

What are associate members?

Mercosur has five associate members–Chile, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru–that do not enjoy full voting rights or complete access to the markets of Mercosur’s full members. They receive tariff reductions, but are not required to impose the common external tariff that applies to full Mercosur members. Of these countries, Bolivia is being considered for full membership. But the decision is complicated by Mercosur’s history with Bolivia, as well as the common external tariff. Bolivian President Evo Morales has criticized Mercosur, saying, “What I’ve discovered is that the CAN [Andean Community of Nations] as well as Mercosur are tools that only benefit businessmen and wealthy people, instead of the poor people” (People’s Daily).

Full membership for Bolivia may also prove problematic because Bolivia’s tariffs are lower than those of Mercosur. “They’d have to increase those tariffs to join,” which would have a significant impact on prices within Bolivia, says Financial Times’ Latin America editor Richard Lapper. He says Mercosur may allow some exemptions to Bolivia to remedy this problem, as Brazil is interested in increased access to Bolivian gas.

Granting exemptions, however, would anger Uruguay and Paraguay, Mercosur’s smallest full members, which have not been allowed similar exemptions. “Can Mercosur keep a straight face in exceptions to the common external tariff, but say it’s not OK for Uruguay and Paraguay to negotiate a bilateral free trade agreement with the United States, since that would undermine the common tariff?,” asks Agustin Cornejo of the Institute for International Economics in the Wall Street Journal in 2007. Uruguay, also angry over an ongoing dispute with Argentina over a paper pulp mill on their shared border, has gone so far as to sign a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (PDF) (TIFA) with the United States.

The TIFA sets the stage for future trade liberalization and economic relations with the United States. But signing a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States would violate Mercosur’s charter, which forbids bilateral agreements with nonmember countries. If the TIFA does eventually lead to the creation of an FTA with the United States, the leadership of Mercosur would either have to disbar Uruguay from the bloc for violating the charter, possibly causing Paraguay to resign as well, or it could choose to rewrite its charter altogether, thereby allowing members to sign bilateral agreements with nonmember countries.

Does Mercosur have a political agenda?

Mercosur made headlines in 2007 when its summit produced a heated debate about the future role of neoliberalism and free trade in South America. At the summit, which produced a communiqué in which Mercosur leaders pledged increased focus on human rights and democracy, Chávez called for Mercosur to be “decontaminated of neoliberalism,” while Colombia’s then-president Alvaro Uribe argued that free market capitalism is the region’s best bet for eliminating inequality. Despite Mercosur’s prominence and potential as an economic entity, some speculate that its agenda is becoming increasingly politicized, especially since Venezuela signed the Protocol of Adhesion in 2006. “Mercosur is no longer about trade,” Johns Hopkins’ Riordan Roett, told the Council on Hemispheric Affairs. “The organization is more and more political and to some degree anti-American.” But theFinancial Times’ Lapper insists business remains its core interest: “It would be a mistake to characterize the Mercosur bloc as a kind of anti-American bloc.” He says trade bloc heavyweights Argentina and Brazil continue to be focused on economic issues.

Escribeme

Valerie Galvis Gutierrez, born in Bogota in 1993. With only 22 years old,she is the owner and creator of “Escribeme”, a Colombian fashion brand accessories.

During her childhood she was known for her skill and taste to art and related subjects. She Studied one semester of fashion design at the School Arturo Tejada Cano, then, she went to study marketing and communication of fashion at LaSalle International College in Bogotá during her career was highlighted by her agility in the fields of graphic design and she is excellent handling in creating new concepts. During her career, she desire to create her own brand, where her designs were reflected in actual products.

In her university life, she always had fashionable notebooks that could be found on the market, but it was not enough as she always wanted to reflect her personality. Silently, She started design possible notebooks cover on her computer and manually.

She decides to propose her personal project to a group of friends who have always been proud of what she does. The dream comes true for Valerie and her 7 friends. She begins on production of small amounts of notebooks where the plus was that they were friendly to the environment. Most leaves are made with the pulp of sugarcane bagasse, to contribute to the planet.
“Escribeme” has several achievements, one of them is already having served one year on the market and have an excellent reception in Instagram.It has over 14,000 followers and they managed to have publications and products in major accounts such as; Vogue Latin America, Fashion TV Colombia, Fashion Tv Latinoamerica, blog de Pilar Castaño fashion blogger,Ita Maria fashion blogger, Daniella del Toro fashion blogger, fashion Heavy blogger, Juan Valdez Café, Sascha Fitness, among others.

Right now, she has a businesspartner with the renowned lawyer and businessman Jorge Leyva Valenzuela who is a personal friend of Valerie and her family.

“Escribeme” is more than a brand. It is a representation of a lifestyle of many women today.

Escríbeme Diary 2016

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Prada Marfa Paint

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Aaron Alnatural

What is Aaron Alnatural?

For pet and nature lovers in search of special products, Aaron Alnatural is a brand that offers exclusive designs inspired on a French bulldog, through a diversified portfolio conform by notebooks, thermos, mug and blouses. By acquiring Aaron Alnatural products we and our clients contribute to Colombian animal care foundations.

 

Company’s mission

Aaron Alnatural is a brand developed by A.G Corp S.A.S, a Colombian company which aims to contribute to Colombian environmental, social and economic development through innovative solutions and attractive environmental alternative for our customers, creating value for society, customers, employees and shareholders.

 

Animal care foundations contribution

Aaron Alnatural seeks to contribute to animal care by supporting two animal protective foundations: Fundación Paraíso de la Mascota and Fundación Unidad Animal, both located in Cali – Colombia. Colombia.

Aaron’s Products

Mini notebooks

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Notebooks (1 and 5 subjects)

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Thermos

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Mugs

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